By: Robert Patrick Fati Gakwerere
On Wednesday, 25th October 2023, The United Nations announced on that Bernard Maheshe Byamungu and Protogen Ruvugaikore were added to the international sanctions list.
Bernard Maheshe Byamungu, 49 years of age, is M23’s Deputy Commander, Commander in charge of Operations and Intelligence. In January 2023, he was promoted by his close friend and associate, Sultan Makenga to the rank of Brigadier General in M23. He was later appointed chief of staff and deputy to Sultani Makenga.
The UN emphasizes that Brig Gen Bernard Maheshe Byamungu has been involved in planning of RDF-M23 operations that have led to war crimes and crimes against humanity. In January 2023, DR Congo government issued arrest warrants against him alongside other M23 commanders, including Maj Gen Sultan Makenga.
On Wednesday, 25th October 2023, the UN also sanctioned, Protgène Ruvugaikore, a Commander of FDLR’s special unit “Commando de recherche et d’action en depth” (CRAP). This Rwandan citizen is accused of having committed acts in the DR Congo, that constitutes to human rights violations. The UN notes, “as leader of the FDLR, he exercises effective command over the group’s fighters and their atrocities.”
Below, photo of Maj Gen Sultan Makenga and his right hand man, Brig Gen Bernard Maheshe Byamungu. There close relationship started way back since ADFLC of Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila to present.